Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)





Almost Native Language Skills

The ability to deal with material which is academic or cognitively demanding, and to use language a level of performance which may in certain respects be more advanced than that of an average native speaker.


Specialised Knowledge

The ability to understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts and recognize implicit meaning. Can express him- or herself spontaneously and fluently without searching for words. Can use the language effectively and flexibly in social and professional life or in training and studies. Can produce clear, structured and detailed statements on complex topics and apply various means of text association appropriately.


Detailed Knowledge

The ability to understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics; including technical discussions in a field of specialization. Can communicate so spontaneously and fluently that a normal conversation with native speakers without strain for either side is possible. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.


Advanced Knowledge

The ability to understand the main points of clear known input when it comes to familiar matters in work, school, leisure, etc. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can report on experiences and events, dreams, hopes and goals and give opinions, short reasons and explanations.


Basic Knowledge

Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. basic personal and family information, shopping, work, immediate surroundings). Can communicate in simple and routine situations where it comes to a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his background and education, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.



The ability to express oneself in a limited way in familiar situations and to deal in a general way with nonroutine information.